|| Tech || Culture || Activities || Resources || Links || Weblogs || Features ||
Site Info
The Space Log
Space for Everyone      -    December 2002

December 27, 2002 Holiday Break

The holiday period slowdown will continue for another week or so but I'll post the occasional item. Today, I've posted the page Climbing a Commercial Stairway to Space: A Plausible Timeline?, which outlines a plausible sequence of incremental steps that would lead to development of low cost space transport and private orbital facilities within a decade or so.


Dec.25.2002 Have A Merry Space Christmas!

Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas! by Carola Kassner

Dec. 23.02 : Sat Radio in the Clear?

As I've indicated before, I think that if satellite radio becomes a clear success it will help enormously to boost the reputation of the entire telecom satellite industry, which was devastated by the Iridium/Globalstar bankruptcies.

Though initial subscriber numbers look fine, a couple of months ago it appeared that perhaps at least one, maybe both, of the satellite radio companies, Sirius and XM Satellite, would soon run run out of cash to keep operating until they reach breakeven.Then in October, Sirius announced a re-capitalization plan that will allow it to operate until at least the second quarter of 2004.

Now XM Radio, which only had cash for a few more months, announced today its own financing package that the company believes will provide "full funding through cash flow breakeven: XM Satellite announces $450 mln financing package - XM Radio - Dec.23.02. The company also said its on track to reach its goal of 350k subscribers by the end of the month.

Dec. 22.02- 6:00pm : Yet More TransOrbital

Transorbital issued this press release today:


TransOrbital, Inc. and International Space Company (ICS) Kosmotras today announced a "perfect launch" of TransOrbitals "Trailblazer" satellite at 8pm, Moscow time. The launch represents a major milestone in TransOrbitals much-anticipated routine lunar delivery service.

Today's launch, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, of the "Trailblazer" into low Earth orbit was pronounced a total success by TransOrbital president, Dennis Laurie. The mission was designed to test rocket separation, downlink telemetry, spacecraft orientation and mass properties in preparation for the formal lunar launch.

Vladimir A. Andreev, Director General of ICS Kosmotras, said, "We are excited about teaming with TransOrbitals first commercial development of the Moon. The ICS Kosmotras Dnepr LV SS-18 ICBM provides a proven cost effective technology for lunar launches.

" TransOrbital is on target to begin routine Moon travel, starting in October 2003. Laurie stated, "Significant commercial demand exists for high definition (HD) video, lunar mapping, data storage, scientific research, communications, and data archiving. Many corporate marketers see their products associated with the first commercial missions to the Moon."

"Additionally, there is worldwide demand from private citizens to send personal items such as photographs, legal documents, business cards, burial ashes, and jewelry to the Moon."

TransOrbital is the first and only commercial company licensed by the U.S. Department of State and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for private sector flights to the Moon.

Sir Arthur C. Clarke noted visionary and renowned writer, praised today's mission and commented, "All good wishes on TransOrbitals successful "TrailBlazer" launch."

Support for the Trailblazer program has been provided by a number of companies, including Lunar Enterprise Corporation and Space Age Publishing.

Dec. 22.02 - 1:00am Trailblazer Mockup

According to an earlier posting to a news forum by Paul Blase of TransOrbital, the mockup is

...a form-and-fit mass simulator. As part of their normal launch integration process, Kosmotras does fit checks, vibration tests, and separation tests on structural mockups of the spacecraft (with the real launch adapter platform) prior to launch. They constructed for us a structural mockup of the TrailBlazer spacecraft, as shown in [photo at the TransOrbital Gallery], which was tested along with the mockups for the other 5 spacecraft to be launched in December. ... For the actual launch on 20 December, the mockups for the other spacecraft will be replaced by the actual spacecraft, of course. This will allow us to test the separation mechanisms, telemetry streams, and launch processing operations."

Dec.21.2002 More TransOrbital

This article - Dnepr Launches Six Satellites - Andrews Space and Tech - Dec.20.02 - gives more info about the succesful launch in Russian yesterday of the TransOrbital payload.

See a photo of the Trailblazer mockup at Gunter Krebs Space Page.

[Note that one of the other payloads was a student satellite, UniSat-2, from the University of Rome.]

A special version of the Space Show program will feature Paul Blase, Chief Technical Officer (CTO) of TransOrbital. He will be interviewed in Moscow, Russia on Sunday morning, December 22, 2002 at 9AM PST. He will have just returned from the Ukraine where he witnessed the Dnepr launch with the mock-up TrailBlazer payload onboard. The regular Wednesday broadcast will be a taped version of this program.

Dec.21.2002 Space News Briefs...

...Alan Boyle gives an update on the effort to produce a game show in Russia in which the winner will ride a Soyuz to the ISS : Space show update - Alan Boyle's Cosmic Log - Dec.20.02 ...

... Gene Cernan suggests sending a teenager to the Space Station - Let A Youngster Follow In My Footsteps - Aviation Week - Dec.20.02

Dec.20.2002 TransOrbital Orbits

TransOrbital, the company planning to send a spacecraft next year to orbit the Moon (and an advertiser at HobbySpace), today got some good news. A test model of its spacecraft was successfully placed into orbit by a Russian Dnepr rocket - Six satellite cargos ride Dnepr booster to space - Spaceflight Now - Dec.20.02 - along with 5 other small payloads. This will help in reaching its goal of launching the working version by the end of 2003.

Dec.19.2002 Patti LaBelle Goes Way Up There

Check out the video clip at Tech TV of Patti LaBelle singing NASA's new theme song Way Up There :

You can even buy the recording now on a CD-Single. (Amazon commission link.)

The song was written by Tena Clark, mentioned in the Space Log previously and who as an entry in the Music section. Her complete rendition of the song and an article about her and the NASA commissioned project are available at Alan Boyle's Cosmic Log at MSNBC - Nov.21.02.

Dec.19.2002 The Internet Reaches Orbit

The advantages of a standard communications protocol apply to telecom in space as well as on earth. The CHIPSat spacecraft, for example, will provide data via basic FTP when it goes to space this month - Web-Enabled Spacecraft: CHIPS Observatory Will FTP Files in from Space - Space.com - Dec.18.02.

See the section Interplanetary Communications Infrastructure for information on efforts to extend the web throughout the solar system.

Dec.19.2002 Edging Space

The travel agency Travelers Advantage and its partner Space Adventures are sponsoring the Edge of Space Sweepstakes in which a luck winner will fly on a MIG 25 to 25km (82,000 ft.).

While not reaching where sub-orbital vehicles will go, such an height will still provide quite a thrill. From such an altitude, "your view directly overhead fades into the darkness of space. Below you, the curvature of Earth is awesomely apparent, and the horizon is 715 miles (1100 km) across."

More info on the contest at Final Countdown Begins for the Travelers Advantage Edge of Space Sweepstakes - Travelers Advantage PR/ SpaceRef - Dec.18.02

Dec.19.2002 More Satcom Lifesigns

Iridium continues to prove its value to the military, which renewed its contract - Defense Department Exercises First Renewal Option of Contract: Extension Confirms DoD Commitment To Iridium's Global Communication Services - Iridium PR - Dec.18.02 .

A Thai based project to launch a broadband satellite gets $390 Million in financing - Broadband Grins In the Land of Smiles - Electronic Business - Dec.17.02, while another sat to provide broadband to Australia and the Asian-Pacific region successfully reaches orbit - Broadband satellite avoids crash and burn - ZDNet - Dec.18.02

Dec.18.2002 Signs of Life in Satcom?

It's been one of the worst years ever for the telecommunications satellite industry. Almost no new satellites were ordered, several on order were canceled or postponed, and then even more woe and misery arrived with the recent rocket failures that destroyed some the largest and most sophisticated telcom satellites every made.

But perhaps even in this cold dark Winter we can see some signs that Spring may someday appear. For example, it was recently announced that the satellite broadband company WildBlue will receive $200 million in investments from a consortium of investors that includes Intelsat and Liberty Media, which is headed by the famous cable industry leader John Malone:

Wildblue had been given up for dead after it failed to come up with money to complete the construction of a satellite on order from Loral. Now, though, it appears that the project is back on track.

While the satellite broadband service from DirecWay and StarBand have not exactly been booming successes, the WildBlue investors apparently believe that if it's done with a satellite built specifically for broadband there is a good chance it will do well. Besides rural areas where there is no cable or DSL available, it has a fighting chance of offering competitive prices to those services in suburban areas.

Meanwhile, Boeing will start to offer internet connections to airline passengers with its Boeing Connexion service: Airlines to Offer Internet Access in '03 - Yahoo! News - Dec.15.02. This will remain a relatively small business for a while but could grow steadily, especially if the airline industry makes a strong recovery from its current recession.

Finally, it looks like even the satellite phone companies may get a break. They will apparently soon be allowed to use supplementary ground transmitters in city areas where buildings interfere with the satellite signals: Satellite Phone Plan Expected To Get OK - Wireless News - Dec.17.02

This will allow them to provide cell phone like quality service in combination with their worldwide satellite coverage for only a modest premium price above cell phone rates.

Dec.17.2002 Student Radio Astronomers

In the GAVRT (Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope) project, high school students gain access to one of NASA's powerful radio telescope antennas. The students will "collect real-time data with sophisticated science equipment through distance learning."

The project is run by the Lewis Center for Educational Research and is part of the GLOBE program to involve students in hands-on research.

Read more about the project in the article : Schools' Radio-Telescope Project Goes International - JPL - Dec.16.02.

More about Robotic Telescopes.

Dec.17.2002 Space Music Briefs...

Singing NASA's Tune - check out the song NASA True (mp3) as sung by Priscilla Kelly on the NASA Kids site. (This item comes via NASA Watch.)

More Space Songs - Colin Fries, a space historian and avid space music enthusiast, kindly sent me a list of over 30 songs missing from my own list.

Dec.17.2002 Station Hams Meet

Activity with the amateur radio stations on the ISS is increasing, especially now that the number of antennas has increased to four. Read about the status and plans for the Space Station ham systems in the report on a recent meeting of the ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) organization : ARISS Team Meets at Goddard Space Flight Center - ARRLWeb - Dec.16.02.

Dec.16.2002 Space News Briefs...

Talking Space - Here's the latest schdule for The Space Show:

  • Dec. 18, 2002: Richard Godwin, space publisher.
  • Jan. 1, 2003: Jim McDade, space advocacy, history, the Sputnik generation.
  • Jan. 8, 2003: Gene Meyer, Space Island Group.
  • Jan. 15, 2003: John Carter McKnight, author of "The Spacefaring Web".
  • Jan. 29, 2003: Brook Mantia, space advocacy, women in space.
  • Feb. 5: John King, CEO JLS Consulting, specializing in making space advocacy work.
  • April 2, 2003: Yuri's Night with Loretta Hidalgo and Dr. George Whitesides.

The show broadcasts live in Seattle and on line every Wednesday at 8-9PST. Past shows are available on the web site archive.

Everyone Can See from Space - The private spy satellites start to make an impact on events: Candid Cameras Cover the Bases - Washington Post - Dec.15.02

Apollo 17 and Going Back to the Moon - These essays discuss the anniversary of Apollo 17 and the prospects for a return to the Moon: The legacy of Apollo - BBC - Dec.16.02 * How the world fell out of love with the moon - Guardian - Dec.16.02

Dec.14.2002 JP Aerospace Busy in Near Space

View from JPA Balloon with Venus
The view from JP Aerospace's Away 17 balloon launched
on Oct.17, 2002. The curvature of the earth is clearly visible
as well as Venus in the top right corner.

JP Aerospace has carried out a number of projects in the past few months including a sounding rocket launch and several high altitude balloon flights. The payloads included Pongsats with experiments from a several hundred students.

JPA was mentioned here recently as an example of a private space development organization with both full time paid employees and volunteers.

According to spokesman John Powell, on October 5, "JPA inaugurated the new West Texas Spaceport with a launch of the MicroSat Launcher rocket. This was the third flight of the ML. For this demonstration a low altitude was desired. The ML took off on a clean cone of flame with almost no smoke. It climbed to nearly 17,000 feet where the GPS system deployed the parachute."

JPA MicroSat Launcher flight at the
West Texas Spaceport
on Oct. 5, 2002

Later in October and then in December there were flights of high altitude balloons and tests of their advance balloon concepts. The Ascender prototype, see photo below, was made by JP Aerospace as two mylar cylinders. An Ascender would be used to carry payloads to high altitude stations.

Ascender prototype.
Test flight of a prototype Ascender balloon vehicle.

On December 8th the team flew "a monster" 80 feet long and 15 feet in diameter mylar balloon built by JPA team members. It "included a GPS tracking system, a balloon separation system and a new ultra light mini beacon" and it "flew to 91,000 feet with climb rates of over 1400 feet per minute before landing 59 miles away."

A second balloon that day carried a "High Rack" payload with various instruments and over 300 PongSats. "The mission tested a new ultra light tracking system and a new balloon release mechanism....The vehicle climbed to 94,100 feet and landed 63 miles down range."

The company's new hanger in Fort Stockton, Texas, has 120 by 300 feet of hanger space and a large workshop area and office space. They will be conducting most of their flights now from Fort Stockton.

Dec.11.2002 Space News Briefs...

Quick Trip to the Moon - The article End of an Era, Dawn of Another? - Astrobiology Magazine - Dec.11.02 about the 30th anniversary of Apollo 17 includes a cool 21 second visualization of a simulated trip to the moon starting from a look down at the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. You then rise quickly above Florida and into orbit. From there the earth recedes as you look back on your way to the Moon. It ends with the Moon's horizon providing an "Earthrise" scene.

Startup Gets to Space - When James Benson started Spacedev he wanted to obtain funding from NASA to send an explorer probe to an asteroid to prospect for valuable metals. That project has yet to leave the ground but in the meantime his company has won contracts to build other types of spacecraft and space systems.

Spacedev built the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) space craft, known as CHIPSat, for the Berkeley Space Science Lab. The satellite will be launched on December 19th from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Boeing Delta 2.

It's great to see a space startup succeeding at getting into space. They may not yet be mining asteroids but this is a start on that path.

Satellite Boom Box - Now you can take satellite radio out of the car and carry it wherever you want t to go : Delphi and XM Introduce First Portable Satellite Radio - XM Radio - Dec.10.02. This follows the recent release of the small SKYFi Radio unit that can easily be used in the car or house.

Dec.10.2002 Space News Briefs...

Space Soccer - As space tourism grows and large space installations become available, recreational activities in zero-G will become a popular pursuit. For example, in the paper On the Practical and Sporting Aspects of Football in Zero-Gravity Oliver Thornton & Patrick Collins look at the possibilities and practicalities of playing soccer in a 3-D arena in space.

The Space Future web site also offers other articles on space sports such as Zero-Gravity Sports Centers by Patrick Collins, Takashi Fukuoka and Tsuyoshi Nishimura - 1994 and Orbital Sports Stadium by Patrick Collins1, Takashi Fukuoka2 and Tsuyoshi Nishimura - 2000.

Delta 4 Looking Back - The video from the rocketcam attached to the Delta IV that launched recently has now been posted in the Ecliptic Enterprise gallery. A video of the launch last August of the Atlas V, the other EELV, is available at the ILS website. The Ecliptic gallery also includes the video from the launch of STS-112 Shuttle Atlantis, which was the first time a rocketcam was attached to a shuttle.

Dec.9.2002 Space News Briefs...

Awakening to SETI - the famous doctor, researcher, and author Oliver Sacks has an article about life in space at Anybody Out There? Part I - Astrobiology Magazine - Dec.9.02

Awakening Satellites - the news of Iridium's demise has always been exaggerated. For example, Eagle Broadband just announced that it will use Iridium as the satellite component of its worldwide communication system:

Eagle Broadband Unveils Unique New Product Line Based On Low-Earth-Orbit, Satellite Communications: "Total Global Coverage Creates Extensive Commercial Aviation, Military, and Homeland Security Applications" - Eagle PR - Dec.9.02

See LEO Communication Constellations section for more about their status.

Measuring Shakes - the GPS location system is being used to monitor shifts in the ground in Southern California to determine whether this can help predict earthquakes - GPS may provide early earthquake warning - New Scientist - Dec.9.02

Dec.7.2002 Earth Artistry

The images of earth from space have long been noted for their mesmerizing beauty. NASA and the USGS recently posted a collection of some of the most stunning earth shots under the Earth as Art title: .From distant eye, Earth becomes art - CNN.com - Dec.6.02

Check out the collections at Earth As Art Collection - USGS EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD and Earth As Art - NASA Landsat. Decorate your monitor screen with your own Earth as Art screensaver . Find lots of other magnificent earth views in the Eyes in the Sky section.

Dec.7.2002 Magnificent Moon Movie

IMAX announced that it would begin work with Tom Hanks on a 3D movie about the experiences of the Apollo astronauts who walked on and explored the lunar surface: IMAX and Playtone to Spearhead Groundbreaking New IMAX(R) 3D Project, Magnificent Desolation - IMAX PR - Dec.6.02

The movie will " allow moviegoers to explore the moon as if they were traveling alongside these 12 extraordinary voyagers. The project will detail what these men saw, heard, felt, thought and did while on the surface of the moon. Magnificent Desolation will be shot in the giant 15/70 format using 3D IMAX cameras and will be released exclusively in IMAX theatres."

More about the project at Tom Hanks to Blast Back into Space - People.com - Dec.6.02 and Hanks, Imax to return to space - CNN.com - Dec.6.02

Dec.7.2002 MirCorp Gets Flashy

MirCorp, which first got the Tito space trip rolling and seeks to become the premier space tourism company, has made a big upgrade to its web site with lots of fancy graphics and animations (in Flash format). More importantly, the site now provides lots more info on its various space related tourist packages. MirCorp's New Face for Space Goes Live! - MirCorp PR - Dec.6.02

See, for example, the Simulators available at Star City to Citizen Explorers undergoing training for space. You can also go for the Zero G experiences.

Dec.5.2002 Space Entrepreneurs to the Rescue

The largest, most powerful commercial communications satellite ever built failed to reach geostationary orbit recently when the upper stage of the Russian Proton launcher failed to fire: Proton Upper Stage Fails, Leaves Astra 1K in Useless Orbit - Space.com - Nov.26.02

The failure of the SES Global Astra 1K comes as a huge blow to the space industry, which is already struggling with the telecom recession and with insurers losing money from previous launch failures and satellite malfunctions.

Today comes word, though, that a new company - Orbital Recovery - is proposing to use its "space tug" to rescue the satellite:

Orbital Recovery Corp. proposes the SLES for ambitious mission to rescue the stranded ASTRA 1K telecommunications satellite. - Orbital Recovery - Dec.5.02

The tug is currently in development but the company says it could be ready for launch within 20 months. They have begun talks with SES and the insurance companies about the proposal.

The company was founded by long time space entreprenours including Walt Anderson and Dennis Wingo (who previously started Skycorp to assemble satellites on the space station.)

In Space Services businesses like this will grow into a big part of the space industry. Orbital Recovery, for example, also proposes to extend the usable lifespan for a comsat after its fuel runs out by using one its tugs to maintain the satellite's position. The Space Station requires regular deliveries of goods and re-boosts to higher orbit. Defunct satellites can be de-orbited to reduce the build up of space debris.

As more and more activity occurs in space, there will be increasing demand for services of all kinds.

Dec.5.2002 Mars Desert Habitat to Include Observatory

The Mars Society announced - Mars Society to Build Observatory at MDRS - Mars Society PR - Dec.4.02 - that it will build a robotic telescope observatory on the site of its Mars Desert Reseach Station.

The telescope will serve a number of applications such as investigating how a Mars explorers could operate scientific systems remotely from within their habitat. The telescope will also be made available for operation on line by students and amateur astronomers.

Dec.5.2002 Market Study for Reusable Suborbital Vehicles - RLV News

Dec.4.2002 Vivid Virtual Mars

Check out the marvelous Mars landscapes & animations by Kees Veenenbos at his Space4Case site. He used the elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). He creates scenes from around the planet as a visitor might see them. He offers a screensaver and other goodies as well.

See the Computer Modelling section for more sites dedicated to recreating planets in our solar system as well as other star systems.

Dec.4.2002 Rocketing Regulations

Just when rocketeers thought they were making progress in their fight against the evil ATF Empire, along comes a bill hurried through Congress that will make life even tougher for those committing the terrible act of pursuing an exciting and educatioinal hobby.

Consumer rocketry involves very safe fuels that have been used for decades. Small model rockets, which typically use a blackpowder based fuel, are often found in toy stores and have been deemed safe by various state and federal agencies such as the FTC.

High Power Rocketry involves motors rated H and higher (see motor codes) and use composite fuels, particularly ammonium perchlorate composite propellant or APCP. A rubber binder is mixed with the ammonium percholate and renders it non-explosive. Instead, "it burns in a controlled, predictable, and focused manner" (ref) as needed for rocket propulsion.

Despite these known physical properties and a history of safe use, the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) decided to put ammonium percholate on its list of explosive substances and since 1994 has sought to regulate its use in high power rocketry. HPR enthusiasts must now pay for permits, must store rockets in certified magazines, etc.

In response to this unwarranted and burdensome regulation, the National Assoication of Rocketry and the Tripoli Rocketry Association brought a lawsuit against the ATF.

The ATF Lawsuit Announcement, though a legal document, provides a very readable overview of the issues involved. This past summer a court rejected the ATF's request that the lawsuit be thrown out and looked favorably on its pursuit. The Joint Statement on BATF Litigation - July.4.02 - The NAR President discusses the courts decision. (See also ATF Update 10/21/02.)

Unfortunately, just when things were looking up, the Homeland Security Law comes along and compounds rocketry's legal problems. An undebated amendment to the bill subjects any substances listed as explosive by the ATF to even further restrictions. For example, previously, moving a composite motor across state lines required a permit. Now moving it even within a state will require a permit.

See John Wickman's article at Homeland Security Law Targets AP Composite Propellant - Amateur Rocketry Society of American - Dec.02 for a full discussion of the problem and what might be done about it. See also The Day the Music Died for HPR: 11/25/02 :: MaxThrust :: News & Information for model rockets and high-power rocketry.

Participants in technical hobbies are at a great disadvantage in such fights. Amateur radio, for example, must also constantly fight against encroachments on its frequency bands. The number of participants is typically small so they don't provide enough voters to get the attention of politicians. Few people in the press have the background or take the time to understand the issues and report thoughtfully on them.

In the US we constantly hear about the need to raise the level of interest, education and participation in science and engineering. Unfortunately, when it comes to supporting those who actually pursue such technical activities, there is dull silence.

Consider a Christmas donation to the Tripoli legal fund or NAR fund. Or buy a EMRR 2002 Calendar.

Rocketry Legal Issues

Dec.3.2002 For All Mankind On Line

James Cameron, of Titanic fame, will host an event this weekend in Hollywood that will honor the Apollo project: Cameron ignites Apollo tribute - Hollywood Reporter - Dec.3.02

The acclaimed documentary For All Mankind by Al Reinert will be shown and then Cameron will lead panel discussion that includes several former astronauts, Reinert and perhaps a movie star or two.

Recently Reinert edited a special 20 minute version of the film that you can view on line at Breakpoint Media.

A related project is EarthShipTV, an on line broadcasting site developed by Cameron and his brother John, that has the "goal of 'reigniting the interest in continuing the journey' of space exploration".

Dec.2.2002 Be a Virtual Astronomer

I've discussed here many times the new robotic telescopes that allow students and amateur astronomers to make observations via the web in near real time.

At another level of remote astronomy involves Virtual Observatories. Many ground and space based observatories, looking in many different wavelengths, resolutions, and fields of view produce more data than professional scientists can ever possibly examine in detail.

To help with the study of this wealth of imagery, the Virtual Observatories will make this data available on line so that students and amateurs can look for interesting happenings in the cosmos for themselves.

See the article Assembling the Digital Sky: U.S. astronomers are gathering terabytes of data into a worldwide “virtual observatory” that will be accessible to scientists and laymen alike -Technology Review - Nov.23.02

Space Camp Progress - Nice to hear that the Space Camp is overcoming its financial problems and even expanding its offerings such as a new ISS simulation that includes a realistic EVA space environment: Space Camp aims for the stars - Huntsville Times - Dec.1.02.

HobbySpace Progress - The traffic at HobbySpace broke all records in November. The site registered nearly 62,000 pageviews and over 39,000 visitors (two or more pages delivered to the same internet address within 30 minutes count as 1 visitor.) In fact, for the past week, the pageview rate has been greater than 2300 per day. At this rate the total number of pageviews since opening the site in January of 1999 should soon easily surpass one million.

HobbySpace News Articles Index 1999-2002


See also  
Space Headlines
RLV News
News Links



with a purchase at an affiliate advertiser or
with a
contribution at PayPal:



Home  |  Directory  |  Advertising  |  About  |  Contact  |  Disclaimer
© 1999-2020 HobbySpace, All Rights Reserved.
HobbySpace is a part of Space-H Services.